Play 0:00 A-C Return to topAbdomen (abdominal cavity)The part of the body between the chest and the pelvis.Aberrant pancreas (pancreatic rest; heterotopic pancreas; ectopic pancreas)A type of submucosal nodule in which pancreatic tissue develops under the lining, or mucosa, of another organ, such as the stomach or small intestine.AbscessA swollen, pus-filled pocket of infection.AcetaminophenMedication used as a pain reliever and fever reducer.AchalasiaA condition in which the muscles of the lower part of the esophagus fail to relax, preventing food from passing into the stomach.Acid indigestionAnother name for gastroesophageal reflux (GER).Acid refluxAnother name for gastroesophageal reflux (GER).Acid regurgitationAnother name for gastroesophageal reflux (GER).AcuteSymptoms or conditions that are short-term.AdenocarcinomaA type of cancer that forms in the glandular cells that produce and release mucus and other fluids.AdenomaA type of polyp that has the potential to become cancerous.AdenovirusOne of a group of viruses that can cause infections of the lung, stomach, intestine, and eyes.AdhesionsFibrous bands of scar tissue that form between internal organs and tissues, joining them together abnormally.Adjuvant therapyChemotherapy, radiation therapy, or chemoradiation therapy given after surgery to lower the risk that cancer will return.Adrenal glandsEndocrine glands found above the kidneys that produce a variety of hormones, including adrenaline, aldosterone, and cortisol.Aflatoxin B1A poisonous carcinogen produced by the Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus molds that commonly contaminates a variety of foods.Alagille syndromeA genetic disorder that can result in liver damage caused by abnormalities in the bile ducts.AlbuminThe main protein in human blood.Alcoholic liver diseaseLiver damage that results from heavy alcohol consumption over a number of years.AlcoholismAn addiction to the consumption of alcohol or the mental illness and compulsive behavior resulting from alcohol dependency.AllergensSubstances that cause an allergic reaction.Allergic rhinitisAlso known as hay fever, a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)A protein produced normally by the liver of a fetus, but present abnormally in adults with some cancers.AminosalicylatesAnti-inflammatory medications used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and some forms of arthritis.AmoxicillinA broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections, especially ear and upper respiratory infections.Ampulla of VaterAlso known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla or hepatopancreatic duct, formed by the union of the pancreatic duct and the common bile duct.Anal electromyography (EMG)A procedure that uses electrodes to measure the electrical activity of anal muscles.Anal fissureA small tear in the lining (mucosa) of the anus.Anal manometryA procedure used to evaluate anal sphincter muscles and rectal sensation.AnalgesicsMedications used for pain relief.AnastomosisA connection made surgically between adjacent blood vessels, parts of the intestine, or other channels of the body.AnemiaA condition in which a person does not have enough healthy red blood cells.Anemia of chronic disease (ACD)Anemia that results from certain chronic medical conditions that involve inflammation.AnesthesiaA state of temporary induced loss of sensation (local) or awareness (general).AngiodysplasiaThe presence of swollen, fragile blood vessels in the gut.Angiogenesis inhibitorsMedications that block the growth of new blood vessels.AngiographyA procedure used to view blood vessels after injecting them with a special dye that outlines them on x-rays.Anorectal ultrasound (endorectal ultrasound)A procedure in which an ultrasound probe is inserted into the rectum, and high-frequency sound waves are used to create an image of surrounding tissues.AntacidsMedications that help neutralize stomach acid.AntibioticsMedications that fight bacterial infections.AntibodiesBlood proteins produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen, such as bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances.AntidepressantsMedications prescribed to treat depression.AntihistaminesMedications that treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.AntihypertensivesMedication used to lower high blood pressure.Antimotility agentMedications used to inhibit or slow gastrointestinal motility in order to treat diarrhea.Anti-rejection medicationMedication used to prevent organ or tissue transplant rejection.AntispasmodicsMedications used to relieve spasm of involuntary muscle.Antiviral medicationsMedications that fight viral infections.AnusThe final part of the digestive tract, an opening through which stool passes out of the body.AnxietyA feeling of nervousness, stress, or apprehension. Anxiety disorder is diagnosed when these feelings persist for several months.AppendicitisA serious medical condition in which the appendix becomes inflamed and painful.Ascending colonThe second part of the large intestine, between the cecum and the transverse colon, that travels up the right side of the abdomen.AscitesAn abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.Aspergillus flavusA fungus that commonly colonizes in cereal grains, legumes, and tree nuts.AspirationThe accidental breathing of food or other matter into the lungs.AsthmaA respiratory condition in which the airways become inflamed and produce extra mucus.Autoimmune disorder (autoimmune disease)A disorder or disease in which the body produces antibodies that attack its own tissues.Autoimmune hepatitisA condition in which the immune system attacks liver cells, which eventually causes cirrhosis and liver failure.Autoimmune reactionAn immune response against in which antibodies and immune cells attack the body's own healthy cells and tissues.Autosomal dominant patternA pattern of genetic inheritance in which an affected individual has one copy of a mutant gene and one normal gene on a pair of autosomal chromosomes.Bacillary dysenteryA severe form of Shigellosis, or infection from shigella bacteria.BacteriaMicroscopic, single-celled organisms that can cause infection.Bacterial endocarditisInflammation of the inner tissues of the heart caused by bacterial infection.Balloon dilatationA procedure in which an endoscope with a small balloon is used to dilate, or stretch, a narrowed bile duct.Balloon expulsion testA procedure which measures how long it takes a person to push a water-filled balloon out of their rectum.BariumA chalky liquid solution that is used as a contrast agent in gastrointestinal x-ray studies.Barium enema (lower GI series)A procedure that uses x-rays and a chalky liquid called barium to view the lower GI tract, including the colon and the rectum.Barium swallow (upper GI series)A procedure that uses x-rays and a chalky liquid called barium to view the upper GI tract, including the esophagus, stomach, and first part of the small intestine (duodenum).Barrett's esophagusA condition in which the normal tissue lining the esophagus changes to tissue that resembles the lining of the intestine.BenignA descriptive term for conditions that present no danger to life or well-being.Beta-blockerMedications used to control heart rhythm, treat angina (chest pain), and reduce high blood pressure.BileThe digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder, responsible for digesting fats. It is made up of cholesterol, bilirubin, and bile salts.Bile ductsPassageways that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine.Bile saltsAny of the sodium salts found in bile acid.Biliary bypassA surgical procedure in which the part of the bile duct before the blockage is connected with part of the bile duct that is past the blockage or to the small intestine.Biliary stonesGallstones that travel into the bile ducts and become lodged there.Biliary strictureA narrowing of a bile duct.Biliary treeThe system of bile ducts that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine.BilirubinAn orange-yellow pigment formed in the liver by the breakdown of hemoglobin and excreted in bile.BiofeedbackA training technique by which a person learns how to regulate certain body functions.BiologicsMedications produced from living organisms or containing components of living organisms.BiopsyAn examination of tissue removed from the body to discover the presence, cause, or extent of a disease.Bismuth subsalicylatesMedications that coat ulcers and protect them from stomach acid.BloatingAbnormal gas swelling of the abdominal area.Botulinum toxinA medication made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which works by weakening or paralyzing certain muscles or by blocking certain nerves.BowelRefers to one of the intestines (small or large).Bowel movementThe movement of stool as it passes out of the body through the rectum and anus.Bowel obstruction (obstruction; intestinal obstruction)A blockage of the small intestine or the large intestine that prevents the normal movement of the products of digestion.Bowel prepPreparation for a procedure, such as colonoscopy, in which the intestines are cleansed of fecal matter and secretions.Bowel restThe intentional restriction of food and drink in order to allow the bowel to rest and heal.Brisk bleedRapid bleeding or escape of blood from a ruptured vessel.Bulking agentMedications used to treat constipation by increasing the volume of stool and making it easier to pass.Calcium channel blockersMedications that prevent calcium from entering cells of the heart and blood vessel walls, resulting in lower blood pressure.CampylobacterA bacterium that causes food poisoning in humans.Capsule endoscopyA procedure that uses a swallowed capsule-like camera to view the lining of the middle part of the GI tract, which includes the three parts of the small intestine -- the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.CarbohydratesA large group of organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, found in certain foods (such as bread, rice, and potatoes) that provide humans and animals with heat and energy.CarcinoidA type of submucosal nodule that has a high potential for being malignant and which grows out of a type of cell found in the GI tract, called enterochromaffin cells, which help regulate gastrointestinal functions.CataractsA medical condition in which the lens of the eye becomes progressively cloudy, or opaque, resulting in blurred vision.CatheterA flexible tube inserted through a narrow opening into a body cavity for removing or injecting fluid.CecumThe first part of the large intestine, where it attaches to the small intestine.Celiac diseaseA condition in which an immune reaction triggered by gluten causes damage to the small intestine.ChaparralVegetation consisting chiefly of tangled shrubs and thorny bushes.ChemoembolizationA procedure in which the blood supply to a tumor is blocked so that anticancer drugs can be administered directly into the tumor without spreading to the rest of the body.ChemoradiationA medical treatment that combines chemotherapy and radiation therapy to increase the effects of both.ChemotherapyA medical treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing.CholangiocarcinomaA growth of malignant cells in the tissues of the bile ducts.CholangitisInflammation of the bile ducts.CholecystectomyA surgical procedure involving the removal of the gallbladder.CholecystitisInflammation of the gallbladder.Cholescintigraphy (HIDA scan)A nuclear imaging study used to evaluate the function of the gallbladder and diagnose obstruction of bile ducts.CholestasisA condition in which bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum.CholesterolA soft, waxy substance containing a lot of fat that is found in body tissue, blood, and the digestive juice secreted by the liver (bile).Cholesterol stonesYellow-green gallstones made primarily of cholesterol.ChronicSymptoms or conditions that are long-lasting.Chronic fatigue syndromeA disorder characterized by extreme fatigue or tiredness that doesn't go away with rest and can't be explained by an underlying medical condition.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)A lung disease characterized by chronic obstruction of lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing and is not fully reversible.ChymeFood contents that pass from the stomach to the small intestine.CirrhosisA chronic disease of the liver marked by degeneration of cells, inflammation, and scarring of tissue.ClarithromycinA macrolide antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections of the skin and respiratory system, and in combination with other medications to treat peptic ulcers caused by H. pylori.Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)A bacterium that is one of the most common causes of infection of the colon in the United States.Clotting factorAny of a number of substances in blood plasma that are involved in the clotting process.ColitisInflammation or infection of the large intestine (colon).Colon (large intestine; large bowel)An organ in the digestive tract, responsible for changing waste from liquid into solid matter called stool.Colon polypsGrowths on the lining of the colon and/or rectum.ColonoscopyA procedure that uses a thin, flexible tube with a camera (colonoscope) to view the inside of the entire large intestine, or colon, and rectum.Colorectal cancerA growth of malignant cells in the tissues of the colon or the rectum.ColostomyA surgical procedure in which a piece of the colon is diverted to an artificial opening in the abdominal wall so as to bypass a damaged part of the colon.ComaA state of deep unconsciousness that lasts for a prolonged or indefinite period.Comfrey teaTea made from a perennial herb with a black, turnip-like root and large, hairy broad leaves.Common bile ductThe bile duct that is formed where the common hepatic duct (from the liver) and the cystic duct (from the gallbladder) meet.Common hepatic ductThe bile duct that connects the liver to the common bile duct.Computed tomography (CT) colonography (virtual colonoscopy)A procedure that uses a combination of x-rays and computer technology to create multiple high-resolution cross-sectional images of the colon and rectum.Computed tomography (CT) enterographyA procedure that uses a combination of x-rays and computer technology to create multiple high-resolution cross-sectional images of the small intestine.Computed tomography (CT) scanA procedure that uses a combination of x-rays and computer technology to create multiple high-resolution cross-sectional images of internal organs and soft tissues.ConstipationA condition in which bowel movements are infrequent and stool is hard, dry, and/or difficult to pass.Contrast mediumA substance introduced into a part of the body in order to improve the visibility of internal structures during radiologic tests.CorticosteroidsMedications used to treat inflammation.CostochondritisAn inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the breastbone.COX-1 enzymesA type of cyclooxygenase enzyme that produces chemicals (prostaglandins) that activate platelets and protect the stomach and intestinal lining.COX-2 enzymesA type of cyclooxygenase enzyme that produces chemicals (prostaglandins) that promote inflammation, pain, and fever in response to injury or infection.Crohn's diseaseA chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines, especially the colon and ileum (last part of the small intestine), that often causes ulcers and fistulas.Cryosurgery (cryotherapy)A type of surgery that uses the local application of intense cold to destroy unwanted tissue.Cryptogenic cirrhosisA condition in which the cause of cirrhosis is unknown.CryptosporidiumA parasite that can cause infection of the intestines.Cyclic vomiting syndromeA chronic functional condition of unknown cause, characterized by recurring attacks or episodes of intense nausea, vomiting, and sometimes abdominal pain, headaches, or migraines.Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymesEnzymes in the body that produce chemicals (prostaglandins) that promote inflammation, pain, and fever in response to injury or infection.CyclosporaA parasite that can cause gastrointestinal infection.Cystic ductThe bile duct that connects the gallbladder to the common bile duct.D-H Return to topDefecographyA video x-ray of the area around the anus and rectum.DefecationThe discharge of feces from the body.DehydrationA harmful reduction in the amount of water in the body.DepressionA mental health disorder characterized by low mood and loss of interest in activities.Descending colonThe fourth part of the large intestine, between the transverse colon and the sigmoid colon, that travels down the left side of the abdomen.Desmoid tumorAn abnormal growth that arises from connective tissue.Diabetes (diabetes mellitus)A disease in which the body's ability to produce or respond to the hormone insulin is impaired, resulting in elevated levels of glucose in the blood.DiarrheaBowel movement pattern characterized by loose or watery stools.DigestionThe process by which the digestive system breaks down food into nutrients that the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair.Digestive juicesSubstances secreted by various organs in the digestive system that break down food into nutrients for the body to use.Digestive systemThe system of organs in the body that are involved in digestion, which is the breaking down of food into nutrients that the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair. It includes the digestive tract, the liver, the pancreas, and the gallbladder.Digestive tract (gastrointestinal (GI) tract)The series of hollow organs through which food passes during the digestive process. It includes the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine, the large intestine (colon and rectum), and the anus.Distal extrahepatic bile duct cancerA growth of malignant cells in the tissues of the distal region of the biliary tree.Distal pancreatectomyA surgical procedure involving the removal of the bottom half of the pancreas.Distal region (biliary tree)Region of the biliary tree that includes the common bile duct.DiureticsMedications that rid the body of excess water by causing an increase in urination.DiverticulaThe plural of diverticulum.Diverticular bleedingA condition in which a diverticulum (small pouch that forms in the wall of the colon) bursts and bleeds.Diverticular diseaseSymptomatic diverticulosis.DiverticulitisInflammation of diverticula (small pouches that form in the wall of the colon).DiverticulosisA condition which diverticula (small pouches) form in the wall of the colon without signs of inflammation.DiverticulumA small pouch that forms in the wall of the colon.DuodenumThe first part of the small intestine where it attaches to the stomach and receives digestive juices from the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.Duplication cystA congenital abnormality that can form under the lining (mucosa) of the GI tract.DyspepsiaIndigestion.DysphagiaA condition in which a person has difficulty swallowing.Ectopic pancreas (pancreatic rest; aberrant pancreas; heterotopic pancreas)A type of submucosal nodule in which pancreatic tissue develops under the lining, or mucosa, of another organ, such as the stomach or small intestine.Ectopic pregnancyA potentially life-threatening condition in which a pregnancy occurs outside the uterus, most often in the fallopian tube.EczemaA medical condition in which patches of skin become rough and inflamed, with blisters that cause itching and bleeding.EdemaAn abnormal accumulation of fluid in the legs, ankles, and feet.ElectrocoagulationA medical treatment that uses an electric current to kill cancer cells.Endoluminal laser therapyA procedure in which an endoscope with a laser attached is inserted into the body to remove cancer and other tissues.Endoluminal stent placementA surgical treatment for tumors blocking the passage into or out of the stomach, in which a stent is inserted into the passage from the esophagus to the stomach or from the stomach to the small intestine.EndometriosisA condition in which the tissue that normally lines the uterus grows in other areas of the body, often causing pain, irregular bleeding, and infertility.Endorectal ultrasound (ERUS) (anorectal ultrasound)A procedure in which an ultrasound probe is inserted into the rectum, and high-frequency sound waves are used to create an image of surrounding tissues.Endoscopic mucosal recection (EMR)The removal of stage I or stage II colorectal cancer with a colonoscope.Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)A procedure that combines upper GI endoscopy and x-rays to evaluate and treat problems of bile and pancreatic ducts.Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)A procedure that combines traditional endoscopy with ultrasound to examine the upper and lower GI tract as well as surrounding organs, including the lungs, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA)A biopsy procedure used to evaluate submucosal nodules.EndoscopyAny procedure that uses a thin, flexible tube with a camera (endoscope) to look inside the body, but most often refers to an examination of the upper part of the GI tract.End-stage liver diseaseAnother term for liver failure, when the liver can no longer perform important functions or replace damaged cells.EnemaA procedure in which liquid or gas is injected into the rectum through the anus.EnteroceleA condition in women in which the small intestine protrudes into the area between the rectum and the vagina.Enterochromaffin cellsA type of cell found in the small intestine that produces serotonin.EnzymeA substance in the body that breaks down or builds up other molecules.EosinophilA type of white blood cell that helps protect the body from harmful bacteria and parasites.Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE)An allergic inflammatory condition in which eosinophils (certain white blood cells) build up in the lining of the esophagus.ErlotinibA medication used to treat several types of cancer, including pancreatic cancer.Escherichia coli (E. coli)A bacterium commonly found in the intestines of humans and other animals, where it usually causes no harm, but some strains that contaminate food and water can cause serious gastrointestinal infection.Esophageal cancerA growth of malignant cells in the tissues of the esophagus.EsophagectomyA surgical procedure to remove part of the esophagus.EsophagitisInflammation of the esophagus.EsophagusThe muscular tube in the digestive tract that carries food from the mouth to the stomach.Exocrine cellsCells in the pancreas that secrete digestive enzymes.External anal sphincterOne of two sphincters controlling the closing of the anus.External hemorrhoidsSwollen blood vessels near the anal opening.External radiation therapyA medical treatment that uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward cancer inside the body.Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomaA growth of malignant cells in the tissues of the bile ducts outside of the liver.Extrinsic compressionA protrusion of another organ into the stomach, causing what looks like a submucosal nodule in some imaging tests.Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)An inherited genetic condition characterized by cancer of the colon and rectum.FatigueA feeling of tiredness.Fatty diarrhea (malabsorption diarrhea)Chronic diarrhea that results from the body's inability to absorb nutrients properly or digest food effectively.Fatty liver diseaseA condition in which there is a buildup of fat in the liver.Fecal immunochemical test (FIT)A type of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) used as a screening test for colon cancer that detects hidden blood in the stool.Fecal impactionA solid, immobile bulk of human feces that can develop in the rectum as a result of chronic constipation.Fecal incontinenceThe inability to control bowel movements.Fecal occult blood test (FOBT)A stool sample test that detects hidden blood in the stool.FibrosisThe process of the formation of scar tissue.FistulaAn abnormal passage between hollow or tubular organs, or between an organ and the outside of the body.Flexible sigmoidoscopyA procedure that uses a thin, flexible tube with a camera (sigmoidoscope) to view the rectum and the lower part of the colon (sigmoid colon).FluoroscopyA type of medical imaging that shows a continuous x-ray image on a monitor.Fructose intoleranceThe inability to digest fructose, which is a hexose sugar found especially in honey and fruit.Functional disorderA medical condition that impairs the normal function of a bodily process, but where every part of the body looks completely normal under examination.FundoplicationA type of laparoscopic surgery used to treat GERD in which the top of the stomach is attached around the esophagus to add pressure to the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and reduce reflux.GallbladderA small organ in the digestive system, where bile produced by the liver is stored.Gallbladder cancerA growth of malignant cells in the tissues of the gallbladder.GallstoneHardened collection of cholesterol or bilirubin that form in the gallbladder.Gallstone pancreatitisInflammation of the pancreas that results from a gallstone blocking the pancreatic duct.Gastric atrophyA condition in which the stomach muscles shrink and become weak.Gastric bypassA surgical procedure in which the stomach is divided into an upper pouch and a lower pouch, and the small intestine is connected to both pouches.Gastric cancer (stomach cancer)A growth of malignant cells in the tissues of the stomach.GastritisInflammation of the lining of the stomach.GastroenteritisInflammation of the stomach and intestines, typically resulting from bacterial, viral, or parasite infection and causing vomiting and diarrhea.Gastroesophageal reflux (GER)An incident in which stomach contents travel back up into the esophagus, causing heartburn.Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)A long-term condition in which stomach contents travel back up into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other potential symptoms and complications.Gastrointestinal infectionA viral, bacterial, or parasite infection that causes gastroenteritis.Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)A type of submucosal nodule most commonly found in the stomach or small intestine that is thought to grow from specialized cells found in the GI tract called interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) or precursors to these cells.Gastrointestinal (GI) tract (digestive tract)The series of hollow organs through which food passes during the digestive process. It includes the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine, the large intestine (colon and rectum), and the anus.GastrojejunostomyA surgical procedure involving the removal of the part of the stomach with cancer that is blocking the opening into the small intestine. The stomach is connected to the middle part of the intestine (jejunum).Genetic (germline) testingA lab test done using a blood or saliva sample to look for certain gene mutations responsible for inherited genetic disorders.Giardia lambliaA parasite responsible for a contagious form of diarrhea, most commonly transmitted through direct contact with infected feces or by eating food or drinking water contaminated by feces.Glandular cellsCells in the body that produce a secretion.GlucagonA hormone produced in the pancreas that raises the level of glucose in the blood by stimulating the liver to release glucose from glycogen stores.GlucoseA simple sugar found in the blood that serves as the body's main source of energy.GlutenA mixture of two proteins found in cereal grains, especially wheat, that is responsible for the elastic texture of dough.Granular cell tumorA type of submucosal nodule most commonly found in the esophagus, but they can also occur in the stomach, colon, rectum, and bile ducts.Guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT)A type of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) used as a screening test for colon cancer that detects hidden blood in the stool.GutRefers collectively to the small and large intestines.Gut flora (microbiome)Bacteria in the digestive system that help break down food into nutrients for the body to use.H2 blockers (histamine receptor blockers)Medications that decrease stomach acid production by blocking histamine, a chemical in the body that signals the stomach to produce acid.Hamartomatous polypA benign polyp made up of tissue elements normally found at the site of growth, but which are growing in a disorganized manner.HeartburnA painful, burning sensation in the middle of the chest, behind the breastbone, and in the middle of the abdomen.Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)A type of bacteria that infects the digestive tract and can cause peptic ulcers.HemoglobinA red protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood.HemophiliaA medical condition in which the ability of the blood to clot is severely reduced.HemorrhoidsSwollen blood vessels in the region of the anus.Hepatic arteryThe main artery supplying blood to the liver.Hepatic ductsBile ducts inside the liver.Hepatic encephalopathyAn accumulation of toxins in the brain that results from cirrhosis and disrupts mental function.HepatitisInflammation or infection of the liver.Hepatitis ARefers to a virus and the infection it causes, which affects the liver and can also cause mild gastroenteritis.Hepatitis BRefers to a virus and the infection it causes, which affects the liver.Hepatitis CRefers to a virus and the infection it causes, which affects the liver.HepatoblastomaA rare type of liver cancer that can affect young children.Hepatocellular carcinomaA growth of malignant cells in the tissues of the liver.Hepatopulmonary syndromeLung failure caused by cirrhosis.Hepatorenal syndromeKidney failure caused by cirrhosis.Hereditary (primary) hemochromatosisA genetic disorder in which there is an overload of iron in the body.HerniaA condition in which part of an organ is displaced and protrudes through the wall of the cavity containing it.Heterotopic pancreas (pancreatic rest; aberrant pancreas; ectopic pancreas)A type of submucosal nodule in which pancreatic tissue develops under the lining, or mucosa, of another organ, such as the stomach or small intestine.HIDA scan (cholescintigraphy)A nuclear imaging study used to evaluate the function of the gallbladder and diagnose obstruction of bile ducts.Hilum region (biliary tree)The region of the biliary tree the includes the common hepatic duct.HistamineA compound that is released by cells in response to injury and in allergic and inflammatory reactions, causing contraction of smooth muscle and dilation of capillaries.HIVA sexually transmitted virus that interferes with the body's ability to fight infection.Hodgkin's diseaseA malignant but often curable disease of lymphatic tissues typically causing painless enlargement of the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen.HormoneA chemical released by the endocrine glands and other tissues to help control certain functions in the body.Human papillomavirusA group of viruses that includes more than 150 different strains or types, many of which are sexually transmitted.Hyperplastic polypA benign small sessile polyp.HypothyroidismA condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.HysterectomyA surgical procedure involving removal of the uterus.I-M Return to topIdiosyncratic reactionDrug reactions that occur rarely and unpredictably amongst the population.Ileoanal reservoir (ileoanal anastomosis)A surgical procedure that removes part of the colon and uses the ileum to form a new reservoir for waste that can be expelled through the anus.IleostomyA surgical procedure in which a piece of the ileum is diverted to an artificial opening in the abdominal wall.IleumThe final part of the small intestine, where it attaches to the large intestine.Immune systemThe system in the body that works to fight off infection and disease.ImmunoglobulinA class of proteins present in the serum and cells of the immune system that function as antibodies.ImmunomodulatorsMedications that help regulate or normalize the immune system.IndigestionPain or discomfort in the stomach associated with difficulty in digesting food.InflammationThe body's response to injury or infection, which increases blood flow to the affected area and results in redness and warmth.Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)One of a group of diseases, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, characterized by chronic inflammation of the GI tract.Inflammatory polypA benign polyp commonly found in people with an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).InfluenzaA highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory passages, commonly called "the flu," which causes fever, severe aching, and excessive discharge or buildup of mucus in the nose or throat.Infrared coagulationA medical procedure used to treat small- and medium-sized hemorrhoids.IngestionThe process of taking food, drink, or another substance into the body by swallowing.Injection sclerotherapyA medical treatment for hemorrhoids, varicose veins, and varices.InsulinA hormone produced in the pancreas that helps cells throughout the body to absorb glucose from the blood to use for energy.Insulin resistanceA condition in which the body's cells do not respond normally to insulin, which leads to high blood glucose.Internal anal sphincterOne of two sphincters controlling the closing of the anus.Internal hemorrhoidsSwollen blood vessels inside the rectum and above the anal opening.Internal radiation therapyA medical treatment that uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near cancer.Intestinal obstruction (obstruction; bowel obstruction)A blockage of the small intestine or the large intestine that prevents the normal movement of the products of digestion.Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomaA growth of malignant cells in the tissues of the bile ducts inside the liver.Intrinsic factorA substance secreted by the stomach that enables the body to absorb vitamin B12.Iron deficiency anemiaA common form of anemia in which the body does not have enough iron.Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)A group of symptoms, including abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and a change in bowel habits (diarrhea, constipation, or both).Irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C)Irritable bowel syndrome in which constipation most frequently characterizes bowel habit.Irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D)Irritable bowel syndrome in which diarrhea most frequently characterizes bowel habit.IschemiaAn inadequate blood supply to an organ or part of the body, especially the heart muscles.JaundiceA medical condition with yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes, arising from excess of the pigment bilirubin and typically caused by obstruction of the bile duct, by liver disease, or by excessive breakdown of red blood cells.JejunumThe middle part of the small intestine.KavaA Polynesian shrub.Kidney dialysisA treatment that filters and purifies blood using a machine when the kidneys are no longer able to do their job.Kidney stoneA hard mass formed in the kidneys, typically consisting of insoluble calcium compounds.Klatskin tumorA bile duct cancer occurring in the hilum region of the biliary tree.Lactose intoleranceThe inability to digest lactose, a component of milk and some other dairy products, due to a lack of an enzyme called lactase in the small intestine.LactuloseA synthetic sugar with laxative properties.LaparoscopyA surgery that uses a thin, lighted tube with a camera (laparoscope) passed through a small cut, or incision, in the skin. Tiny tools are inserted through the laparoscope to perform surgical functions.Large bowel resectionA surgical procedure involving the removal of all or part of the large intestine.Large intestine (colon; large bowel)An organ in the digestive tract, responsible for changing waste from liquid into solid matter called stool.Laser therapyA medical treatment that uses a laser beam to kill cancer cells.LaxativeA medication used to treat constipation by stimulating evacuation of the bowels.LeiomyomaA benign type of submucosal nodule usually found in the lower section of the esophagus.LesionAn area of abnormal tissue change.LevothyroxineA medication prescribed as a thyroid hormone replacement.LinaclotideA medication used to treat chronic constipation.LipomaA benign type of submucosal nodule consisting of slow-growing, fatty tissue that generally causes no symptoms and requires no treatment.ListeriaA type of bacterium that infects humans and other warm-blooded animals through contaminated food.LiverThe largest internal organ in the body, responsible for secreting bile to digest fats, detoxifying chemicals, metabolizing drugs, filtering blood, and producing blood proteins for clotting.Liver cancerA growth of malignant cells in the tissues of the liver.Liver failureThe inability of the liver to perform it's normal functions.Liver transplantA surgical procedure in which a diseased liver is removed and replaced with a healthy liver from a deceased donor or part of a liver from a living donor.Local excisionA surgical procedure to remove a small area of diseased or problematic tissue.LoperamideAn opiate medication that inhibits peristalsis in order to treat diarrhea.Lower esophageal sphincter (LES)A ring of muscle at the lower end of the esophagus that allows food into the stomach and keeps stomach contents from coming back up.Lower gastrointestinal (GI) series (barium enema)A procedure that uses x-rays and a chalky liquid called barium to view the lower GI tract, including the colon and the rectum.LubiprostoneA medication prescribed to treat chronic constipation and opioid-induced constipation.LumenThe inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.Lymph nodesSmall bean-shaped structures located throughout the lymphatic system that contain lymphocytes (white blood cells), which help the body fight infection and disease.LymphomaCancer of the lymph nodes.Lynch syndromeA genetic condition that greatly increases the risk of colon cancer, as well as other cancers.Macrolide antibioticA class of antibiotic medications that are especially effective against gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococci and Streptococci.Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)A type of MRI used to evaluate the bile ducts and pancreas.Magnetic resonance (MR) enterographyA type of MRI used to evaluate the small intestine.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)A procedure that uses a combination of radio waves and magnets to create images of internal organs and soft tissues.MalignantCancer that tends to invade and destroy nearby tissue and possibly spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.Mallory-Weiss tearA tear in the mucosal lining of the esophagus caused by forceful vomiting or retching.MeaslesAn infectious viral disease causing fever and a red rash on the skin.Medication-induced liver injuryDamage to the liver caused by medication.MesalazineAn aminosalicylate anti-inflammatory medication used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).Metabolic bone diseaseDisorders of bone strength, usually caused by abnormalities of minerals, vitamin D, bone mass, or bone structure.Metabolic syndromeA group of health risks, including large waist size, high levels of triglycerides, low levels of HDL, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose levels, that increase the chance of developing heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.MetastasisA stage of cancer in which cancer cells have broken away from the primary tumor and spread to other organs in the body through the bloodstream or the lymphatic system.MethylcelluloseA medication used as a bulk laxative to treat constipation.MetronidazoleAn antibiotic used to treat anaerobic bacterial infections.Microbiome (gut flora)Bacteria in the digestive system that help break down food into nutrients for the body to use.MigraineA recurrent throbbing headache that typically affects one side of the head and is often accompanied by nausea and disturbed vision.Mixed irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-M)Irritable bowel syndrome in which bowel habit is characterized equally by frequent constipation and frequent diarrhea.Monoclonal antibodiesLaboratory-produced antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.Monoclonal antibody therapyA type of targeted therapy that uses laboratory-produced antibodies to identify and attack cancer cells.Monosodium glutamate (MSG)A flavor enhancer commonly added to Chinese food, canned vegetables, soups, and processed meats.MotilityThe ability of the digestive system to move contents through the digestive tract.MucosaA thin membrane that lines the inside of the digestive tract and other internal organs.MumpsA contagious and infectious viral disease causing swelling of the parotid salivary glands in the face.N-Z Return to topNarcotics (opiates)Medications, including oxycodone, hydrocodone, codeine, morphine, fentanyl, and others, used to relieve severe pain.Nasogastric feedingThe use of a tube that is passed through the nose and down through the esophagus into the stomach for feeding.NauseaAn uneasy or unsettled feeling in the stomach together with an urge to vomit, or throw up.Neoadjuvant therapyChemotherapy, radiation therapy, or chemoradiation therapy given before surgery to shrink the tumor.Neuroendocrine cellsCells in the pancreas that produce hormones, such as insulin and glucagon.NeurotransmitterA chemical substance that acts as a messenger between nerve cells in the brain.NitratesMedications used to treat and prevent angina (chest pain).NitritesAn additive in some foods used for coloring, antimicrobial, and flavoring effects.Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)A condition in which there is an accumulation of fat in the liver of a person who drinks little or no alcohol.Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)A serious type of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in which inflammation and damage are caused by fat buildup in the liver.Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)Medications that reduce pain, fever, and inflammation.NorovirusA group of viruses that are a common cause of food poisoning and acute gastroenteritis.ObesityA condition in which a person has too much body fat, as measured by body mass index (BMI). A BMI 30.0 or above is considered obese.Obstruction (bowel obstruction; intestinal obstruction)A blockage of the small intestine or the large intestine that prevents the normal movement of the products of digestion.OpiatesMedications, including oxycodone, hydrocodone, codeine, morphine, fentanyl, and others, used to relieve severe pain.Oral contraceptivesA birth control pill taken by mouth.Osmotic agentsA type of diuretic that inhibits reabsorption of water and sodium.OsteomyelitisInflammation of bone or bone marrow.OsteopeniaA condition in which there is reduced bone mass.OsteoporosisA condition in which the bones become porous and brittle, and break easily.Ovarian cystA collection of fluid surrounded by a thin wall within the ovaries.OverweightA condition in which a person's body weight is higher than what is considered healthy, as measured by body mass index (BMI). A BMI between 25.0 and 29.9 is considered overweight.Palliative surgerySurgery done to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life, but is not curative.PancreasA small organ in the digestive system, responsible for secreting digestive enzymes, insulin, and glucagon.Pancreatic cancerA growth of malignant cells in the tissues of the pancreas.Pancreatic ductA passageway that connects the pancreas to the common bile duct.Pancreatic enzymesDigestive enzymes produced by the pancreas.Pancreatic rest (aberrant pancreas; heterotopic pancreas; ectopic pancreas)A type of submucosal nodule in which pancreatic tissue develops under the lining, or mucosa, of another organ, such as the stomach or small intestine.PancreatitisInflammation of the pancreas.Panic attackA sudden episode of intense fear that triggers severe physical reactions when there is no real danger or apparent cause.Panic disorderAn anxiety disorder characterized by recurring panic attacks.ParasiteAn organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits by deriving nutrients at the host's expense.Parkinson's diseaseA progressive disease of the nervous system marked by tremor, muscular rigidity, and slow, imprecise movement.Partial (subtotal) colectomyA surgical procedure involving the removal of part of the large intestine.Partial hepatectomyA surgical procedure in which a part of the liver is removed.Pedunculated polypA polyp that grows on a stalk, resembling a mushroom or cauliflower.Pelvic dysfunctionAbnormal function of one or more pelvic organs or muscles.Pelvic dyssynergyAn inability to coordinate the pelvic and anal muscles involved in defecation.Pelvic exenterationA radical surgical treatment in which all organs are removed from a person's pelvic cavity.Pelvic organ prolapseA condition in which one or more pelvic organs slips downward.PenicillinAn antibiotic or group of antibiotics used to treat some bacterial infections.Peptic ulcerA sore on the lining of the stomach or first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum.Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainageA procedure done to drain bile when there is a blockage and endoscopic stent placement is not possible.Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC)A procedure in which a thin needle is inserted through the skin and into the liver, and dye is injected to make the liver and bile ducts more visible on x-ray.PerforationA tear in the lining of an organ.Perihilar bile duct cancerA growth of malignant cells in the tissues of the hilum region of the biliary tree.PerineumThe area between the anus and the scrotum or vulva.PeristalsisThe movement of a layer of muscle in the walls of digestive organs that moves food through the digestive tract. This movement resembles an ocean wave.PeritonitisInflammation of the peritoneum, a silk-like membrane that lines the inner abdominal wall and covers the organs within the abdomen.Pernicious anemiaA type of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, a condition in which the body does not make enough healthy red blood cells, due to a lack of intrinsic factor.Phosphate preparationAn alternative bowel preparation that uses a phosphate solution or phosphate pills to cleanse the bowel before a colonoscopy.Pigment stonesDark-colored gallstones made primarily of bilirubin.PlateletsSmall colorless disk-shaped cell fragments without a nucleus, found in large numbers in blood and involved in clotting.PleurisyChest pain caused by inflammation of the linings around the lung (the pleura).Pneumococcal diseaseAn infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria, which can result in many types of illnesses, including ear infections and meningitis.Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)A vaccine that protects against multiple types of pneumococcal bacteria.PneumoniaLung inflammation caused by bacterial or viral infection, in which the air sacs fill with pus and may become solid.Polyethylene glycolA solution used to cleanse the bowels in preparation for a colonoscopy.PolypA small growth on a surface inside the body.PolypectomyRemoval of a polyp, either endoscopically or surgically.Portal hypertensionHigh blood pressure in the portal vein, which carries blood from the stomach, intestines, spleen, gallbladder, and pancreas to the liver.Portal veinThe main blood vessel carrying blood from the stomach, intestines, spleen, gallbladder, and pancreas to the liver.Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)A mental health condition characterized by negative mood, intrusive memories, avoidant behavior, and hyper-arousal related to a traumatic event.Primary biliary cirrhosis (primary biliary cholangitis) (PBC)An autoimmune disease of the liver that results from a slow, progressive destruction of the small bile ducts in the liver.Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)A condition in which inflammation of the bile ducts leads to scar formation and narrowing of the ducts over time.ProbioticsLive bacteria and yeasts that are good for the digestive system.ProctocolectomyA surgical procedure involving the removal of the rectum and all or part of the colon.ProkineticsMedications that help the stomach empty more quickly.ProstaglandinA chemical substance in the body that participates in a wide range of functions, such as contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, the dilation and constriction of blood vessels, control of blood pressure, and modulation of inflammation.ProtectantsMedications that coat ulcers and protect them against acid and enzymes so that healing can occur.Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)Medications that lower the amount of acid the stomach makes.PseudocystA fluid-filled cavity resembling a cyst but lacking a wall or lining.PsoriasisA common skin condition that speeds up the life cycle of skin cells, causing cells to build up rapidly on the surface of the skin, which form scales and red patches that are itchy and sometimes painful.PsylliumA leafy-stemmed Eurasian plantain, the seeds of which are used as a laxative and as a bulking agent.Pulmonary embolismA blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries in the lungs, often cause by blood clots.Pyloric sphincterA ring of muscle that allows food to leave the stomach and enter the small intestine.Quadruple therapyA regimen of four medications used to treat peptic ulcers caused by H. pylori.Radiation therapyA medical treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing.Radio frequencyA medical treatment that uses an electrical current produced by a radio wave to heat the area of concern.Radio frequency ablationA procedure that uses a special probe with tiny electrodes to kill cancer cells.Radiologic guided drainageA procedure that uses imaging guidance to place a needle or catheter through the skin into an abscess to remove or drain the infected fluid.Radiologic testA variety of imaging techniques, such as x-ray, ultrasound, computed tomography, nuclear imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging used to diagnose and/or treat diseases.Rectal complianceThe ability of the rectum to relax and store stool.Rectal intussusceptionAlso called incomplete prolapse, a condition in which part of the rectum slips downward.Rectal prolapseA condition in which all or part of the rectum slips downward through the anus.Rectal sensationThe ability to sense the presence of stool in the rectum.RectoceleA condition in women in which the front of the rectum protrudes into the back of the vagina.RectumA section of the large intestine, responsible for storing stool until the muscles contract to push the stool out of the body through the anus.Red blood cellsBlood cells that carry oxygen throughout the body.Regional chemotherapyA medical treatment, placed directly into the affected organ, that targets cancer cells in a specific area, or region, of the body.ResectionA surgical removal of all or part of a damaged organ or structure, particularly the removal of a tumor.RetchingAn attempt to vomit.Rheumatoid arthritisA chronic, progressive disease causing inflammation in the joints and resulting in painful deformity and immobility.RifaximinAn antibiotic medication used to treat diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and hepatic encephalopathy.RotavirusA group of viruses that are a leading cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration in young children.RubellaA contagious viral disease, with symptoms like mild measles.RugaeRidges of muscle lining the stomach that churn and mix food with stomach acid to help digestion.SalivaWatery liquid secreted into the mouth by glands, providing lubrication for chewing and swallowing, and aiding digestion.SalmonellaA bacterium that occurs mainly in the intestine, which causes food poisoning.Schatzki ringA narrowing of the lower esophagus, caused by a ring of mucosal tissue or muscular tissue, that can cause difficulty swallowing.SclerodermaA chronic connective tissue disease characterized by a hardening of the skin.SedativesMedications that slow brain activity, ease agitation, and permit sleep.Sequential therapyA regimen of several medications taken in a particular sequence to treat peptic ulcers caused by H. pylori.Sessile polypA polyp that doesn't have a stalk, appearing flat or as a small bump.ShigellaA bacterium that is an intestinal pathogen of humans, some kinds of which cause dysentery.ShigellosisA gastrointestinal infection caused by shigella bacteria.ShinglesA disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus and characterized by skin eruptions and painful inflammation of the nerve ganglia.ShockA critical condition, common after serious injury, that is brought on by a sudden drop in blood flow through the body.Sigmoid colonThe curving, lower part of the large intestine, between the descending colon and the rectum.Silent gallstonesGallstones that do not cause any symptoms.Simple cystA fluid-filled sac that forms under the lining, or mucosa, of the GI tract.Simple fatty liverNonalcoholic fatty liver disease that does not cause any problems or have any symptoms.Sinus infectionAn inflammation of the soft tissues that line the sinuses.SkullcapA hardy perennial herb of the mint family.Small bowel resectionA surgical procedure involving the removal of part of the small intestine.Small intestine (small bowel)A long, tightly packed organ in the digestive tract, responsible for digesting carbohydrates and protein from food and drink.Somatoform disorderA group of psychological disorders in which a person experiences physical symptoms that are inconsistent with or cannot be fully explained by any underlying general medical or neurologic condition.Sorbitol intoleranceAn inability to digest sorbitol, which is a sweet-tasting crystalline compound found in some fruit.SphincterA ring of muscle that opens and closes to allow passage between organs.SphinctorectomyAn endoscopic procedure in which a cut is made in the muscle that surrounds the pancreatic duct or bile ducts to enlarge the opening.Spider angiomasA type of swollen blood vessels found slightly beneath the skin surface, often containing a central red spot and reddish extensions which radiate outwards like a spider's web.SpleenAn abdominal organ involved in the production and removal of blood cells and forming part of the immune system.SplenomegalyAbnormal enlargement of the spleen.Spontaneous bacterial peritonitisAn acute bacterial infection of ascitic fluid.Sporadic GISTA condition in which a person has a single gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST).Squamous cell carcinomaA type of cancer that forms in the thin, flat cells (squamous cells) that make up the outermost layer of the skin and line the surface of the esophagus.Staphylococcus aureusA gram-positive bacterium that is found on the skin and in the nasal passages of about a quarter of humans, which can cause serious infection of the skin, soft tissues, GI tract, and lungs.StarchesA type of carbohydrate, also referred to as a complex carbohydrate.StatinsA group of medications that act to reduce levels of fats, including triglycerides and cholesterol, in blood.SteatosisInfiltration of liver cells with fat.StenosisThe abnormal narrowing of a body channel.StentA short, narrow metal or plastic tube, often in the form of a mesh, that is placed inside a blood vessel, canal, or duct to relieve narrowing or obstruction.Stimulant laxativeFast-acting laxative medications that induce bowel movements by increasing the contraction of muscles in the intestines.StomaA surgically created opening on the outside of the body leading to the gut or trachea.StomachAn organ in the digestive tract, responsible for digesting protein from food and drink.Stomach acidDigestive juice secreted by the stomach.Stomach cancer (gastric cancer)A growth of malignant cells in the tissues of the stomach.StoolSolid matter formed in the large intestine as water and salt are absorbed from waste.StrictureA narrowing of a passageway, such as the esophagus or a bile duct.StrokeAn interruption of the blood flow to the brain, which leads to permanent damage and/or persistent symptoms.StuporA state of near-unconsciousness or insensibility.Submucosal nodule (submucosal lesion; submucosal tumor)An abnormal growth that originates under the lining (mucosa) of gastrointestinal organs.Subtotal (partial) colectomyA surgical procedure involving the removal of part of the large intestine.Subtotal gastrectomyA surgical treatment that involves the removal of part of the stomach and parts of surrounding tissues and organs.SuppositoryA solid medical preparation in a roughly conical or cylindrical shape, designed to be inserted into the rectum or vagina to dissolve.Systemic chemotherapyA medical treatment, taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, that targets cancer cells throughout the body.Systemic lupus erythematosusAn autoimmune disease that can affect the skin, joints, kidneys, brain, and other organs.TachyphylaxisAn acute, sudden decrease in response to a drug after its administration; a rapid and short-term onset of drug tolerance.Tap water enemaAn injection of plain water into the rectum in order to stimulate a bowel movement.Targeted therapyA medical treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells.Tarry stoolStool that is either dark red or black in color.Tdap vaccineA booster immunization given to protect against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Temporomandibular joint disorderPain and dysfunction of the muscles that move the jaw and the joints which connect the jaw to the skull.TetanusA bacterial disease marked by rigidity and spasms of the voluntary muscles.TetracyclineA family of broad-spectrum antibiotic medications used to treat a variety of infections.ThorotrastA suspension containing particles of a radioactive compound that was used as a radiocontrast agent in medical radiography in the 1930s and 1940s.TinidazoleAn antibiotic used to treat certain types of vaginal infections and parasite infections.Total gastrectomyA surgical procedure involving the removal of the entire stomach, parts of the esophagus, small intestine, and other tissues and organs nearby. The esophagus is connected to the small intestine to allow eating and swallowing.Total pancreatectomyA surgical procedure involving the removal of the entire pancreas.Toxic megacolonA rare, life-threatening dilation of the large intestine, usually a complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii)A parasite that can only reproduce in cats and causes infections when its cysts are ingested.Transverse colonThe third part of the large intestine, between the ascending colon and the descending colon, that travels across the abdomen.TriglycerideA kind of lipid or fat, which, in high concentrations in the blood, indicate an elevated risk of stroke.Triple therapyA regimen of three medications used to treat peptic ulcers caused by H. pylori.TuberculosisAn infectious bacterial disease characterized by the growth of nodules (tubercles) in the tissues, especially the lungs.TumorAn abnormal growth of tissue that can be either benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous).Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)A protein capable of inducing necrosis (death) of tumor cells.Type 2 diabetesA type of diabetes in which the insulin produced is either not enough or doesn't work properly in the body.Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)A type of targeted therapy that blocks the action of enzymes related to cell signaling, growth, and division.Ulcerative colitisAn inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes long-lasting inflammation and ulcers in the digestive tract.UltrasoundA noninvasive procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of internal organs and soft tissues.Unsubtyped irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-U)Irritable bowel syndrome in which bowel habit is not frequently characterized by constipation or diarrhea.Upper esophageal sphincter (UES)A ring of muscle at the top of the esophagus that controls swallowing and keeps food and drink from entering the windpipe.Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopyA procedure that allows a provider to view the lining of the upper GI tract, including the esophagus, stomach, and the first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum, using an endoscope.Upper gastrointestinal (GI) series (barium swallow)A procedure that uses x-rays and a chalky liquid called barium to view the upper GI tract, including the esophagus, stomach, and first part of the small intestine (duodenum).Urea nitrogenWaste product from the breakdown of protein in the body, which is normally filtered by the kidneys and leaves the body through urine.Urinary tract infection (UTI)An infection of any part or parts of the urinary system, which includes the urethra, the bladder, the ureters, and the kidneys.UrsodiolA medication that is used to dissolve gallstones in people who can't have surgery to remove them.Uterine fibroidsBenign growths of the uterus from a mix of muscle and fibrous tissues.VaricesAbnormally dilated or enlarged blood vessels.VilliSmall finger-like projections that line the inside of the small intestine to increase the surface area for absorbing nutrients from food.Vinyl chlorideA colorless toxic gas used in manufacturing plastics. Virtual colonoscopy (CT colonography)A procedure that uses a combination of x-rays and computer technology to create multiple high-resolution cross-sectional images of the colon and rectum.VirusA microorganism that is smaller than bacteria that cannot grow or reproduce apart from the living cells of other organisms.Vitamin B12A vitamin important for the normal function of red blood cells and the health of nerve tissues.Vitamin B12 deficiency anemiaA condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells due to a lack of vitamin B12.Whipple procedureA surgical procedure in which the head of the pancreas, the gallbladder, part of the stomach, part of the small intestine, and the bile duct are removed.White blood cellsNearly colorless cells of the immune system that circulate in the blood and lymph and help fight infections.Whooping coughA contagious bacterial disease chiefly affecting children, characterized by convulsive coughs followed by a whoop.Wilson's diseaseA genetic disorder in which copper builds up in the body.X-rayA procedure that uses low-level radiation that passes through the body to produce a two-dimensional picture called a radiograph.YohimbeA tropical West African tree of the bedstraw family.Zoster vaccineA vaccine that protects against shingles.